The digitalisation of the world and the Internet changed the rules in many, if not all, fields. One major change I just realised is the loss of attribution. I often made these errors when in contact with opinions that I didn’t share. When it came to my personal views and groups I feel associated to, I felt mistreated or misunderstood if people made general claims about such group.
Before the internet it was relatively easy to attribute an action or statement to an organisation, such as a political party or a state. Actions were attributable because evidence was impossible, or at least very hard, to forge (without leaving a trace). Statements made by an individual could be traced back as opinion were exchanged by direct contact.
This changed in the digital world. Data can be manipulated without leaving traces and left traces are hard to find and could also be created on purpose.
For this reason actions in the internet, such as hacking an organisation, can’t be attributed to someone only based on the traces left in the process. Hard, physical proof is needed to do such an attribution.
Hacks are generally attributed to the Russian government at the moment. This attribution explains (some) features of found malware and traces. However a skilled hacker could have avoided such traces or planted them on purpose.
Statements made by an individual are often labeled as being left, right or liberal believes, but are just the interpretations and thoughts of a single person. Even if this person associates itself with a specific group doesn’t make his statements general believes of such group. The association of an individual with a group got more fluid in the internet. One only has to claim being associated to be seen as voice of such group.
This error, where association is confused with attribution, can often be seen in today’s debates. For example, feminists are viewed as crazy women who want to see men suffer because a few individuals with extreme viewpoints identify themselves as feminists. The political right is often set on one level with Nazis because, again, few individuals who call themselves “right” spread hatred against foreigners. The political left is confused with people that despise all authority or want to recreate the communism of the cold war.
In conclusion, our old techniques of attribution don’t work any longer in the digital world. Actions can’t be attributed and statements made by individuals only show their views, not general views of a group. This makes policital and social debates more complex, as organisations (movements/parties) can’t be described by pointing on individual events or statements. Other techniques are required to pinpoint the general believes of a group.
- 500 g Chopped Tomatoes
- 100 ml Water
- 1 small Onion
- 1 Garlic Clove
- 1 Tsp Olive Oil
- 1/2 tsp Pepper
- 1 tsp Salt
- 1/4 tsp dried Chilis (Habaneros)
- 1 tsp Marjoram
- 1 tsp Oregano
Sear chopped onions and garlic for ~2 minutes in olive oil, until the garlic starts to turn brown.
Add tomatoes and water.
Let it simmer for 5 minutes and add all spices.
Mix everything up and let it simmer for ~30 minutes with a half closed lid.
Blend everything to a smooth sauce.
Taste dominated by the hotness of the chili. Marjoram and Oregano barely noticeable. Pizza taste dictated by toppings and dough, sauce stays in background.
The ingredients (in a copyable fashion):
- 500 g Pasta
- 250 g Mini Tomatoes
- 250 g Mozzarella
- 125 g Arugula
- 100 g Green Pesto
- 2 Tablespoons Honey
- 2 Tablespoons Mustard
- 1 Handful Grinded Parmesan Cheese
Cook the pasta as described on the package (al dente). While the pasta is cooking you can cut the mozzarella and the tomatoes. I divide the tomatoes once or twice, depending on their size. The mozzarella is cut into pieces roughly the same size as the tomato pieces.
Add everything to the bowl, except the arugula! It takes a long time mix everything up if you add the arugula directly. Mix the ingredients until everything is coated than add the arugula and mix it again.